Quantum Computers Explained - Limits of Human Technology

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Where are the limits of human technology? And can we somehow avoid them? This is where quantum computers become very interesting.

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Quantum Computers Explained - Limits of Human Technology

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7 Dez 2015



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Elise Elise
Elise Elise Vor 22 Tage
MM MM Vor 2 Monate
I still have no idea how to pronounce this channel
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Repent or you will likewise perish.
Repent to Jesus Christ!! “Many are the plans in a person’s heart, but it is the Lord’s purpose that prevails.” ‭‭Proverbs‬ ‭19:21‬ ‭NIV‬‬
Soulplexis Vor year
i've learned everything and nothing at the same time - superknowledge.
Stefan Al Wombat
Stefan Al Wombat Vor 20 Tage
Haha! Same!
Manakh Jyoti Phukon
However the polarity of your knowledge would change based on the magnetic field orientations, a class test in the regard.
Sough Vor 25 Tage
So, nothing lol
Andrea Sánchez
Andrea Sánchez Vor 26 Tage
Guido Zárate
Guido Zárate Vor 27 Tage
Quantum Knowledge
Joachim LAVANDES Vor 5 Monate
Even though I studied Quantum physic and also IT as a major, during my last years at university, this one is the hardest episode of all for me. And I cannot even have help from my parents, who are IT teachers. But I WILL understand it. Or not, at the same time.
EpreTroll Vor 17 Tage
Just like the hyperloop this entire idea is based just on eliminating 1 factor. Oh but imagine if there was more than a 0 and 1. Imagine there is no air resistance
Symmetriad Vor 8 Monate
Hey guys, I can run DOOM on one million 7 year-olds.
Benur M
Benur M Vor 27 Tage
One of them would prank you and give the wrong answer and your game would crash.
Owen W
Owen W Vor Monat
You can run doom with just one person, but the lag will be huge, like 1 frame per decade
Gibran Camus
Gibran Camus Vor Monat
@idonteven careLOL cursed comment
Wild Blunt Hickok
@TheRadioDemon You can't run Doom on ANYTHING. The year it came out one of the semi-common types of processors couldn't run it due to it's high requirements on the CPU (calculating 70+ bullet paths at the same time while also figuring out who was close enough to a path to get hit was the actual problem it failed at). It was the reason that chip was discontinued. Xenon chips maybe? Been years since I watched that video. Some famous youtuber had a video about it but I don't remember who. I do remember the same video saying that Doom was brilliantly programmed, and made that "bullet hell" calculation a lot more efficiently than any game before it.
Derek Tweedie
Derek Tweedie Vor Monat
275,000 will do it 40 times a second though.
Roo Vor 2 Monate
ARM: “idk man probably” x86: “Yes!” Quantum computer: *“perhapsn’t”*
PurpleNova Vor 10 Monate
My brain is currently in a superposition of somewhat understanding this and being completely melted at the same time
benjie cresencio
@suraj vardhan BULLY
Aaron Davis
Aaron Davis Vor 2 Monate
It's best not to think about it. But at the same time, it's something to think about.
Aaron Davis
Aaron Davis Vor 2 Monate
@vale das ventum Or does it? Yes, it does. I just sauced you with V.
NetherPortal - Science and Gaming
Well... you’re kind of right. Since every possible, teachniclly you kind of are (in a parallel universe) How cool isn’t that?!
Arthur He
Arthur He Vor 2 Monate
can a spectrum be superpositioned
Joberg Vor 7 Monate
“Today a typical scale for transistors is 14 nanometers.” Checks the date: Oh it was released in 2015. The current iPhone has 5 nanometers technology. We’re almost there.
EndGamez Vor 29 Tage
@He nz 🅥 no way...
Gibran Camus
Gibran Camus Vor Monat
@TARS Humor setting: 55%
TARS Vor Monat
@Gibran Camus you mean Star Trek!
Gibran Camus
Gibran Camus Vor Monat
@TARS I loved you in Star Wars.
Strazdas Vor Monat
@Sionide Perhaps you should "Search it up".
Ethan Stedman
Ethan Stedman Vor 4 Monate
I remember when I first learned about binary computing and spent hours perfecting different logic gates with minecraft redstone, eventually making a computer that could add any two four bit numbers. Fun stuff to mess around with.
EndGamez Vor 29 Tage
@roger van Bommel easy to do or nah?
roger van Bommel
Yea, i went a step further with that and made a 4 bit alu, PC , and ram/ROM, basically a full redstone computer
Freestyle Therapy
this is beyond amazing :o.... the impact is unmeasurable I'm happy to be alive at this time. Thank you Kurzgesagt I felt this video like someone telling the good news!
Mihai Veres
Mihai Veres Vor 25 Tage
I usually watch your videos to learn about new concepts and ideas in fields completely unrelated to what I do, so this is the first time I actually watched a topic on something related to my field of study and work (Computer Engineering). And it has been such a great experience to see how elegantly you guys approached some of the concepts I've been trying to explain family and friends many times (because the question "so what exactly do you do?" or "how do computers actually work?" naturally pop). This gave me a very unique perspective on how much "simplification" is actually done on the subject to fit in a video, and how accurately and brilliantly the essence of the topic is captured. I already had a great level of respect for all the hard work that's being put in these videos, but it just went to the next level. Thanks for all the awesome work in educating the world.
Vicelion Vor year
"Right now, we don't know if quantum computers will be just a specialized tool, or a big revolution for humanity" Its quantum, it's gonna be both things at once.
The Lone Stick Figure
At least until we test it
Youssef Walli
Youssef Walli Vor 10 Monate
Chris So
Chris So Vor 11 Monate
maybe, maybe not, maybe we just can calculate faster...and then impossible problems stay impossible. Not what I wish for but ye
Christian Dauz
Christian Dauz Vor 11 Monate
@ledocteur7 Imagine how different the world be if the Computer and the Internet were invented a thousand years ago. The world would be in a much better place
Scott Mantooth
Scott Mantooth Vor 11 Monate
*both things at once...twice*
Abyss420 Vor 8 Monate
One thing I love about this channel it gives me the same vibes as Little big planet did back in the day, theirs that nostalgic vibe to it aswell everytime I watch.
Abyss420 Vor 4 Monate
Abyss420 Vor 4 Monate
@Corpsefoot bit of everything the whole vibe
Corpsefoot Vor 6 Monate
I think it’s just the voiceover lol
datagod Vor 4 Monate
Excellent video. I hope you make an expanded version of this one, with a slightly slower temp. So much info to take in.
Dave Bremner
Dave Bremner Vor 2 Monate
That was the best explanation of quantum computing I've come across I'd heard all the information before but I'd never really understood it so yay for my brain.
OrbitL Vor 5 Monate
I dont know why but i find it actually hilarious the thought of electrons just quantum tunneling around our tiny computers
SimplySarc Vor 6 years
How on earth are these transistors the size of atoms even made? How could you make so many small things that need to follow logic?
44R0Ndin Vor 2 Monate
@i First off, if you're talking digital logic, yes a transistor is generally operated as a "switch". That's simply the most efficient operating mode for it, as you're only losing a little bit of energy to the actual resistance of the transistor in its fully on state, and to the leakage current in its off state (remember, IRL there is no such thing as an ideal device, there's always losses and potentially undesired behaviors in every device, even simple things like resistors inductors and capacitors). However, you're missing out on what the primary transistor operating mode was for several deacades (well before they were used in digital logic). Analog operation! By carefully regulating the current (for bipolar transistors) or voltage (for all types of field-effect transistor, including MOSFETS), you can make the transistor act as a metering device, letting only "some" of the current thru it. This is how the transistors in most broadcast-band radios work, and it's how the transistors work in class A, AB, and B type amplifiers. Class D amplifiers are back to using them purely as switches, as the letter indicates that they're a Digital amplifier. This is done by using Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) to synthesize an analog waveform from rapid switching of a single current source. Class D amplifiers are the most efficient ones we have, but the analog amplifiers use many many less components, and are much simpler to understand and design, as they're more similar to the old vacuum tube amplifiers that people used to use because transistors either hadn't been discovered yet or hadn't been commercialized into the highly reliable and rugged devices we know today. And you can do a lot of math (including Calculus!) with not a lot of transistors, if you do it all with analog voltages. That's what the transistor circuit known as the "operational amplifier" is intended to do, and that was one of the first circuits to be put on a single chip (just look up how old the design for the 741 operational amplifier is, it's almost older than my parents and they're in their '60s). Analog electronics to do math is a fascinating subject, simply because it's amazing to me how few transistors you actually need if you can keep the whole circuit well matched and very tightly controlled on the tolerances of the components (don't use 5% resistors for this, you'll need special ones that have much tighter tolerances, probably laser-trimmed carbon film resistors if I had to guess, those are pretty cheap for having like 0.01% tolerances).
i Vor 2 Monate
A transistor only have 2 state : on (have electricity, or electron flow through it), or off (do not have electron flow through it). The flow of the electricity on transistor could be controlled, flip on and off by a small current on its base. So, only a few atoms and a lot of accuracy could be enough for a transitor.
44R0Ndin Vor 5 Monate
@Ignacio Benavides Eventually you have to switch to higher frequency lasers because you can only focus a beam of light down so far before diffraction takes over and makes it unfocused again even if your optics are focusing it to a smaller point. I forget exactly what causes the diffraction, but I know that a higher frequency beam of light can be focused to a smaller point because it's not as effected by diffraction. Right now they're working with pretty "hard" (aka high frequency) UV light. They could switch to X rays I suppose, but we have problems making lenses that work at that light frequency. And that's why it's so hard to make a single atom transistor (of course the name "single atom tranistor" is a bit of a lie anyways, it's not just "one atom is magically a transistor", there's a bunch of other atoms around it to form the gates and stuff.
Ozzni Vor 5 Monate
Human brain magic
Corpsefoot Vor 6 Monate
@Frank Schneider That sounds less like the system is infinitely complex, and more like human beings are just having their old dumb assumptions disproved. The same way the historical discovery of chimpanzees using sticks wasn’t some crazy breakthrough for chimpanzees, it was just an embarrassing reminder for human beings to not assume stupid shit
Zachary Daiquiri
I'm so glad there are smart people interested in solving this problem.
Lag, Harbinger of Lost Connection
So a Quantum computer is just like a house full of Schrödinger's Cats
lubomir kubas
lubomir kubas Vor Monat
lubomir kubas
lubomir kubas Vor Monat
lubomir kubas
lubomir kubas Vor Monat
exept they are atom sized
Albert Sebastian
More like a planet full of Schrödinger's Cats.
BananappIeboy • 69 years ago • 12 months ago
@DON'T CLICK THIS VIDEO I've never been much of a mobile gamer, but, forget everything you think you know about mobile games because Raid Shadow Legends is one of the most ambit- im sorry
Caleb Godday
Caleb Godday Vor Tag
I must confess this is the only video that explains quantum computing in an easy way to understand it's inner workings thumbs up
Ziggy Zoggin
Ziggy Zoggin Vor 4 Monate
tip to whoever coded the simulation: when doing a physics update, you can do a ray cast from a moving object, then detect if it hit anything and act accordingly. this is helpful for detecting if an electron hit an atom thick wall.
Ziggy Zoggin
Ziggy Zoggin Vor 2 Monate
@david ???
david Vor 2 Monate
go white boy
Disconnect Google+
Disconnect Google+ Vor 5 years
My computer has the power of trillions of primary school students being forced to perform maths.
Overdrive Vor Monat
@Devon Hernandez teacher logic in a nutshell
Overdrive Vor Monat
alioman legend
alioman legend Vor 2 Monate
So basically just the education system
teemoIRL Vor 3 Monate
@Green Bean lol jeezus Christ, take it easy there mate
Green Bean
Green Bean Vor 3 Monate
@teemoIRL literally meaningless. Braindead comment that get likes cause YT is full of s*b-human.
Iris Iridium
Iris Iridium Vor 2 Monate
I love that the limits of our technology is analogized by a transporter. Its like the only thing we have left to figure out from the star treks.
jojolafrite90 Vor 4 Monate
This was actually a very good and understandable presentation. Thanks.
NetherPortal - Science and Gaming
The story of a wise computer i met 20 years ago: Normal computer: The answer is Yes Other normal computer: The answer is No Quantum Computer: It’s all about perspective
Dawngliana Pachuau
Dawngliana Pachuau Vor 8 Monate
I'm not kidding I had to rewatch this video multiple times to clearly understand how it works
unknown 2072
unknown 2072 Vor 2 Monate
Mustafa Keblawi
Mustafa Keblawi Vor 4 Monate
Aaand you probabbly still don't XD
Qamber Abbas
Qamber Abbas Vor 5 Monate
than u under stand
Hisoka Morrow
Hisoka Morrow Vor 10 Monate
Normal computer: Yes Other normal computers: No Quantum Computers: Yesn’t
Miguel Baltazar
Miguel Baltazar Vor 2 Monate
the floor is made of flooceleing (floor and ceiling)
Benjimen7890 Vor 2 Monate
Yes'nt Nes
Fry Vor 2 Monate
weg Vor 3 Monate
More like Normal conputer: Yes Other normal computers: No Quantum computer: aktjqksjzlk
Lasty Hopper
Lasty Hopper Vor 3 Monate
Quantum COmputers: Our current probability of yes is currently 50/100, therefore, the answer would be "yesn't"
cumeo89 Vor 2 Monate
I still have a hard time believing that quantum computing would ever work. Representing lots of states at once sounds good but im reality you're bound to run into precision problems. The good thing about traditional computer is that they have built in room for errors so, if the electrical current is a bit too high or too low, it is still rounded into 0 or 1, or a fault is detected. How can you detect an error in a superposition if 2^50 states?
fiftythree Vor Monat
Quantum computing don't really hold more information than regular computers; it's a bit unfortunate that Kurzgesagt propagates that myth. It's better to think of Quantum computers as an evolution of a Probabilistic computer, which is something we have plenty available in the classical setting; think, with some randomnizer, have input of 0 with probability A, and 1 with probability 1-A. The set of "superpositions" ends up being just the set of different combinations of probabilities - this ends up being large, in fact, infinitely large, since A is a real number! And further, looking at several bits, the number of possibilities grows exponentially. But that isn't a problem. You did still accidentally bring up a good point though; current technology gives us very large errors on basic computations for quantum computers, which is a problem, since errors accumulate exponentially. However, this is something the very active research field of "Quantum Error Correction" hopes to solve; essentially, our objective is to have a set of "self-correcitng qubits", each consisting of their own set of qubits. The self-correcting qubits are able to reduce the error probabilities to something manageable. However, with our current best algorithms and current best tech to implement quantum computers, we'd need ~1000 regular qubits to construct even a single self-correcting qubit! IBM has recently produced a 127 (normal) qubit computer. They are aiming for 1000 normal qubits by 2025 (so is Google); once that barrier has been breached, we will have our first real, useable quantum computers, that don'T immediately collapse due to rappidly accumulating errors.
Google user
Google user Vor Monat
exactly! i havent found a single video yet on youtube that can explain the topic and implementations in an understandable way.
Jon Moore
Jon Moore Vor 3 Monate
I feel like we are growing ever closer to a field of experts skilled in breakfast math.
06 Thanh Băng 11A6
Quantum Mechanics is such a interesting field in my opinion. I've learned it since i was 13. I can't wait to see its popularity in the future, like a differently new world??
F-Man Vor 8 Monate
The computer was always meant to be for industry only, yet Apple changed the game in 1970, the second someone can make a desktop quantum computer that works with a desktop thats user friendly the whole world will change on a level we could only imagine
Abdul walli
Abdul walli Vor 2 years
My IQ while watching the video is increasing and decreasing at the same time so my IQ is in a superpositioned state
O Kn
O Kn Vor Monat
the only direction your IQ can change is getting smaller, for example from car accidents, cause it isn't how much you know (your intelligence) its the quotient of that (intelligence quotient)
Maggie De Block
Maggie De Block Vor Monat
Hahahaha amazing comment
benjie cresencio
@Spoopy Doopey TRUE
bibr_0 Vor 2 Monate
69th repli
LameNWatch Vor 2 Monate
assuming dumb is 0 and smart is 1, I think everybody's in a superpositioned state... ...that is, until we take a test.
Felipe Branco
Felipe Branco Vor 6 Monate
Wow, even seven years back, your videos were already amazing.
Heir of Sugar
Heir of Sugar Vor 2 Monate
was about to say its only been 5 years then rememebered hahahahaha ;-; wtf
Maurya Wadhwa
Maurya Wadhwa Vor 3 Monate
The fact that I'm studying all the topics they initially talked about and I could understood all the symbols made me smile ear to ear
This genuinely has worried me for years. There will be a time in our near future that we will have the fastest non quantum computers. I'm sure engineers can curve off some of Moores's law, but the end result is inevitable. What worries me is that I don't think we will solve the huge issues quantum computers have in time. Will this be the next big economic crash? We have to wait and see I suppose
Chris Taylor
Chris Taylor Vor Monat
I think that is a fair concern. However, since progress is exponential, even though we may not have many steps left we have a lot of computing power to go. And if computing power is at a point in which it is totally efficient than in terms of an economics standpoint, that is actually a good thing. And in terms of consumer goods I believe that marketing is perhaps more important than the actual computing power so I doubt there will be a large decline in sales. However you are right in the fact that we simply don’t know and the only way to know is to wait.
Onio Saiyan
Onio Saiyan Vor 5 Monate
Computer scientist: let's work on getting single atom transistors. Computer engineer: ok. Six years later Computer scientist: how are you playing Doom? There's no computer! Computer engineer: tiny atom computer is tiny.
Computer : yes, no Quantum computer: *PERHAPS*
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Skaterhaube Vor 2 Monate
Quantum computer: check for yourself dumbass
chirone Vor 4 Monate
Computer: To be or not to be... Quantum computer: *T O N O T T O B E*
Geskawary234 Vor 8 Monate
Daniel Weiser
Daniel Weiser Vor 7 Monate
Please do an update on recent achievements on this topic! Great video!
Pi Mc
Pi Mc Vor 4 Monate
There are none, except the insignificant change in nm
Captain Rev
Captain Rev Vor 4 Monate
Red guy: "Hey bud what's up" Blue guy: "how familiar are you with the gears of war exactly" Red guy: "What" Blue guy: morphs into a horror monster
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Ff Cc
Ff Cc Vor 2 Monate
Truls Gunnuldsen
Truls Gunnuldsen Vor 3 Monate
@Stample thats what i thought too
Stample Vor 3 Monate
@Tathnous Oxide lol, except for the blue guy turning into a melting blue chocolate demon
Tathnous Oxide
Tathnous Oxide Vor 3 Monate
@Stample The blue guy turning into a monster? i dont think so ;D
Holden H
Holden H Vor 3 Monate
This uneasy feeling of learning something but not, is how I feel after every quantum mechanics class I have
Andy Hunjan
Andy Hunjan Vor 7 Monate
But if it's based on the measurement of something we don't know, won't the result vary wildly each time the program is run? How do we know the particle will be measured the way we want it to?
roger van Bommel
Well, you often run a program 1024 or more times, called shots
Soham / Akatsuki
Normal computer: Yes. Other normal computer: No Quantum computer: Well Yes, but actually No
Heidi CHRIST Vor 10 Monate
No but actually yes
ItzXavian Vor 11 Monate
More like "Yes, but also no"
Ezsk Vor 11 Monate
It's same as usual Kurzgesagt.
Alan Mira Anime
Alan Mira Anime Vor 11 Monate
Yesn't but Non't
Kuba Grotowski
Axel Ljungqvist
Axel Ljungqvist Vor 2 Monate
If its possible to connect two quantum particles to be the same value on the other side of the world - Wouldnt that make 0ms internet delay to the other side of the world? Or does it take time? Could that be a new amazing alternative to radio frequency in drones and car keys etc?
Andreas Kvisler
Andreas Kvisler Vor 2 Monate
no, just different values. If a tangeled particle has - the other needs to be +
Ravi Makwana
Ravi Makwana Vor 5 Monate
I'm software engineer. and understand how 0 and 1 works. and this video is mind-blowing... Awesome. hope we're not use this in AI....
BMO Vor 6 Monate
ngl. this is actually the most I can sorta understand from "Quantum Computing". other videos still left me hanging too much. thanks so much!
Isaac Marks
Isaac Marks Vor 2 Monate
Perhaps you can give the other videos a chance again after getting a better grasp of the concept. So maybe you can understand a little better now that you have built a bit of a foundation. If you can find any videos of Richard Feynman explaining it, I would choose that one. He was a genius, and great at explaining difficult concepts. Also, Carl Sagan would be a good choice if he has a video where he speaks about it, but I can't guarantee that he has
Ryan Vor 5 Monate
man, if we can actually learn how to treat each other well and not give everything to a few people who can't even use it, we are going to be awesome!
Rudraksh Parsai
Rudraksh Parsai Vor 10 Monate
"They won't replace our regular computers" *Can't wait to come back here in 15 years and see kids commenting "Ha! I'm watching on my XC-G7 quantum computer"*
Deltexterity Vor Tag
most likely they'll be even less efficient at most tasks than regular computers though, only for specific tasks will they be way faster.
Dumitru Suci
Dumitru Suci Vor 7 Tage
@Haoran Xue can it run Crysis?
ScoopsPatartes Vor Monat
I believe as it stands that Quantum computers need to be within a specialized environment to actually work and so if Quantum computing ever does become much more popular it would likely be via Virtual Machines and in the Cloud rather than physically in front of us, unless you have a shit ton of money to construct the environment required to physically have one.
Girth7 Vor Monat
Ha! I'm watching on my samsung fridge.
Amar Catague
Amar Catague Vor 2 Monate
haha I'm watching this with my Google Pixel 69420 Q Edition with Quantum Time Travel Chrome Browser 😂
John Connell
John Connell Vor 2 Monate
I had such high hopes that you guys would be able to explain quantum computing at a level I would understand. Oh well.......😐
ToonLink 1672
ToonLink 1672 Vor 5 Monate
It just blows my mind how we are able to physically manufacture things tinier than a cell.
Siggy Buttbrain
Siggy Buttbrain Vor 6 Monate
I’d say given the time they would end up something like a solid block of pure computing power, like if your marble counter top was a pc.
Daniel Palasti
Daniel Palasti Vor 4 Monate
Cubic CPUs instead of flat circuit chips? That would be another breakthrough in computing. Instead of having transistors the size of atoms, you also have circuit chips thin as a atom, stacked on top of each other billion times over until they are the thickness of a fingernail. Tiny cube.
Captain Polar
Captain Polar Vor 7 Monate
Great quote from a great show: "Every time you add a Q-Bit, it's power effectively doubles" (or something along those lines) (Show: Code Lyoko)
Captain Polar
Captain Polar Vor 6 Monate
@Adriano Arne-Ritz A fellow fan i see
Adriano Arne-Ritz
Adriano Arne-Ritz Vor 6 Monate
Ah, Code Lyoko. I missed that show
Alexander Cummins
Alexander Cummins Vor 3 years
I came to this video confident I'd learn something about quantum computers. I left this video confident that I'd never learn anything about quantum computers.
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Dogs 4Life
Dogs 4Life Vor year
Learning the fundamentals of Quantum Computing is not as challenging as people think, innovating in the field however, is very challenging. It's very new (in terms of being active, the basis were placed over a hundred years ago), relatively unexplored, and some of the greatest minds were able to innovate and make advancements in the field without actually understanding the field itself. Schrodinger and Einstein are an example of that.
Attaxalotl Vor 2 years
I came to this video hoping I'd have quantum computers explained more than _Popular Science_ did. Left knowing exactly what _Popular Science_ explained.
Karidu Animations
Karidu Animations Vor 8 Monate
My brain is in a superposition on deciding how I managed to understand this the first time
Abdirasaq Ali
Abdirasaq Ali Vor 4 Monate
Yes and no
Brainlet Johnson
Brainlet Johnson Vor 2 Monate
What if we used a quantum computer to design the fastest conventional computer?
zacthecrac Vor Monat
its sort of scary that we might be at the peek of where technoloy can take us and this world is what we've done with all of it ...
Willinat Vor 8 Monate
Does this also mean computers have a maximum RAM capacity? Like lets use a 64 bit system for example, does that mean it can only have as much RAM as 2^64 bits?
Tuxedo Productions
Tuxedo Productions Vor 2 years
Since this video has been released, transistors have decreased in size furthermore. An iPhone XS or later has a transistor size of 7 nm, which was pretty revolutionary since it was one of the only devices to be mass-produced with such an architecture. In the past year, however, 7 nm transistors are becoming more prevalent in PCs. In 2019, 5 nm technology has become commercialized, though not on a massive scale. Even now, Samsung has announced they plan to commercialize 3 nm technology. The important thing to note here is that we design these transistors often decades before they become commercial. For example, 10 nm technology was first designed in the 1980s before being created in 2002 and commercialized in 2016. Currently, the smallest transistor created is at 2.3 nm, which may signal that we are at an end for transistors, considering how the disparity between the size of created transistors and the size of commercialized transistors has diminished greatly. Currently, some major nanotech research firms have considered 14-angstrom transistors (14Å, one angstrom is 10^-10 meters, 1 ten-billionth), which is about half the width of a DNA helix, by around 2025. However, whether or not we will be able to actually realize this is up for debate for the reasons mentioned in this video.
PingWine Vor year
SensualCream Agree with you 100%
SensualCream Vor year
@Tuxedo Productions Dude thanks for this. It's so frustrating seeing everyone just type a bunch of bullshit in the comments. I get Kurzgesagt tries to aim for the lowest common denominator and there are better channels for scientific discussion but it's still disappointing nonetheless. The fact you have two douchebags here saying "too long" and "I couldn't read all this" is awful. I can somewhat wrap my head around the concepts in this video but I _completely_ fail to understand why the fuck someone would fail to read something, then spend the time and energy expressing that they didn't read it. TL;DR You're awesome and thanks for having something to teach us (which should be why we're all here). If anyone's interested, one of the concepts being discussed in the video and in your comment is called Moore's Law.
Tuxedo Productions
@Josh Yes
Josh Vor year
Is 14 angstrom equivalent to 1.4nm?
Pro at Stuff
Pro at Stuff Vor year
Sorry I couldn’t read all I this
Stefan Al Wombat
Stefan Al Wombat Vor 20 Tage
I‘m now closer to being a quantum super computer than I never was.
FrenchExpat Vor 8 Monate
Any update in the field of science, lately, regarding this subject? Let us know when there is! :)
talk alot
talk alot Vor 2 Monate
1:53, for people who didn't know, that was actually the worlds smallest movie ever made. (not duration, its size)
Divyansh Sharma
Divyansh Sharma Vor 2 Monate
Bryan Turnbow
Bryan Turnbow Vor 6 Monate
If you change the spin on one entangled particle does it change the spin of its entangled partner instantly regardless of distance between the two?
Xidnaf Vor 6 years
Can someone please explain to me how superpositions are helpful for storing data in any way? If they're in every state possible before we observe them, isn't that basically the same as just having one possible state: all of them at once? How can you store information in that?
Michael Lombardi
Michael Lombardi Vor 3 years
Quantum computers are not good at storing data. My prediction is in the future we will have quantum chips like a GPU, because they aren't better computers, they are only better at certain things, and storing data is not one of them because they deal with probabilities instead of certainties. While they are in every state at once, each state has different probabilities. For example, a single qubit might be 30% 0 and 70% 1. What this means is that when you measure it, 30% of the time it ends up as 0 and 70% of the time it ends up as 1. Doesn't seem very useful, right? Quantum computers can do things very fast, but they can never be 100% certain. What this means is that quantum computers excel at problems where you can check your answer very quickly. So quantum computers aren't really helpful for storing data, instead you take your classical data, do some magic quantum processing which is super fast that gives you quantum data, then you change the quantum data into classical data, which is probably correct. Then you test your classical data and if it is not correct, you try again until it is correct.
veztron Vor 3 years
@SandCrackR I think I can see what you are getting at, but I don't think what you are talking about really applies to Quantum Computers. There are two things that seem a bit off about your analogy: 1. Although qubits are often compared to classical bits, my understanding is that they are much more difficult to measure and change the state of. i.e. one clock pulse may not be enough to "measure" or "change" the value of a qubit but I'm not certain of that. I think this part is still up in the air because the actual ways qubits are created in real quantum computers varies and real quantum computers don't even work that well yet. For that reason that it is complicated to measure qubits, multiplexing may not work with them like classical bits, but again I'm really not sure. 2. qubits don't act as either the RAM or the CPU! The fact of the matter is that contemporary quantum computers contain some qubits, and also a seperate RAM and CPU. qubits don't replace anything in a computer, they are something new and different. Maybe it's more apt to compare some qubits with a GPU because a GPU doesn't replace the CPU or RAM, it simply makes some operations on a computer much faster. Qubits are the same thing: they make some algorithms much quicker, but they cannot replace a CPU or RAM.
SandCrackR Vor 3 years
@veztron this is a really old video and comments but you seem to know a good amount about qmech. In a normal memory use (think PC RAM) say you have a 4bit ram. The 4 bits obviously have 16 possibilities but only one can be calculated at a time. However if you multiplex the memory bits using an external smart device (CPU clock) then you can fetch all the answers and Cascade or concatenate them. In our example this might be really simple because only 16. What I'm trying to understand. If we have 4 qubits in the same memory configuration. And we wanted to Cascade the answers, then we shouldn't need a clock to multiplex and lay the 16 possibilities in series, rather the 4 quibots act as an intelligent unit that can produce all 16 possibilities at the same time and therefore you can access any of the 16 possibilities at the same time. Do qubits act as a RAM and CPU at the same time ?
Epic Stimulus
Epic Stimulus Vor 3 years
Xidnaf the superposition is based on probability. The superposition is both states at once with a changing probability. If it is observed, the superposition is collapsed to one state.
Arunav Sanyal
Arunav Sanyal Vor 3 years
So scientists tend to talk in terms of confidence. If your experiment is probabilistic, on one try, you may or may not get the right value. For instance take a weighted coin (the coin is made such that it actually ends up heads 90 percent of the time). Now on one try, you might still end up with tails, so you cant conclude whether the coin is weighted or not. But repeated over many times (say 10000 times), you can approximately say its 90 percent biased towards heads (it might be slightly off, e.g. you might end up with 8991 heads maybe). But the more repeatitions you do, the closer it is to reality. Its the same problem with Quantum computers. Since its manipulating probability amplitudes of a wave function, there is always the possibility that the decoherence will end up with an outlier (e.g if q = 0.948|0> + 0.31|1>, decohering q might still end up with 1 10 percent of the time, and you would not know what q actually represents with one try). But if you have 10000qs with the same superposition state as above, you can be reasonably certain what q is (based on the exact same logic as the coin analogy i put above).
Giin Vor 26 Tage
Well, since most games I can think of are forms of simulation, and quantum computers excel in simulation, I suspect that the tech might just go consumer one day.
CRYPT0 Tr0LLCHAIN Vor 2 Monate
very easy to understand! now I have knowledge about quantum computing
Arindam Karmakar
Arindam Karmakar Vor 3 Monate
"You can imagine a computer as a group of 7-year-old, answering really basic math questions.", that sums it up!
Abdul Ahad
Abdul Ahad Vor 7 Monate
You know somethings complicated af when even a Kurzgesagt video can't fully explain it :(
Ifeoluwa Adeoye
Ifeoluwa Adeoye Vor 2 years
Observer: so, Qubit, what would you like to be: 0 or 1? Qubit: Yes
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Axy Vor 3 Monate
It simply makes the quantum bits become both the values and with one quantum bit you can already store the information of 2 normal bits. But if you have more than one qubit, you can actually say 2 qubits can store the information of 4 normal bits. With 8 qubits you can already store 256 normal bits complex information. This is really a game changer.
Peter Parker
Peter Parker Vor 5 Monate
Q bert and the triangle of squares
Luna Koala
Luna Koala Vor 5 Monate
Actually no. This misses the whole point of collapsing Superposition when observed. More like: Qubit: I'm 0 and 1 at the same time! Observer: What's your state? Qubit: *rolls dice*
xen photon
xen photon Vor 5 Monate
Qubit: both please. Wait.... You decide!
This made me understand them less. How can you have multiple superpositions if superposition is every possible position at once? How can you re-measure a qubit? If you measure it it changes and if you measure it again would it not change again? How can you ever know if a qubit is read properly if it potentially collapses into any of all its possible states?
Do You Know Da Wae
it remains in the same state after you measure it initially - re-measuring won't change it.
wagwan 9a
wagwan 9a Vor 3 Monate
you know its a hard subject when even kurzegesagt cant explain it easily
omkar upadhyay
omkar upadhyay Vor 3 Monate
I didn't knew that this video can also clear most of my concept about semiconductors...and quantum physics
Orisphera Vor 5 Monate
3:21 If I understand it correctly, according to the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, the qubit remains in superposition, but you become entangled with it. I don't understand the Copenhagen interpretation because I can't imagine true randomness without many worlds
ThatOtherAndrew Vor 2 years
*"I used the quantum physics to simulate the quantum physics."*
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Neo2266 Vor year
*Hey dawg, I heard you like quantum physics*
Aryan Gupta
Aryan Gupta Vor year
Hiep Nguyen
Hiep Nguyen Vor year
@ThatOtherAndrew it's a reference to thanos' line in avengers endgame
Time ho to sun lena
like us. the universe thinking about itself
EnderKing_13 Vor Monat
These are around our first quantum computers. Remember the fact the first electronic computer was massive and could barely run something like 100 times 50. Now look at what it’s become now. If that happens to quantum computers, and it becomes a average thing that all computers use, lag will never be thought of. And if there is a way found for them to be mass produced, they wouldn’t be rare so they wouldn’t be expensive. For around 300 dollars, you would be able to get something that is cable of holding master programing. Then, the world would become easier and easier, more and more is discovered. Since now nearly everyone has a computer that can load anything instantly, a lot of things will arise that haven’t been seen before since not everyone today can share their knowledge.
AA-17-Phạm Trọng Minh Khôi
In 80 years of development, we turned that giant-ass ENIAC into something that we can fit in our home and a million time stronger than it. In another 80 years, we can turn the quantum computer into something that can fit in our brain. Technology is advancing exponentially
Black Flame
Black Flame Vor 4 Monate
So in summary, Quantum Computers could be used for Security purposes (banks/blockchains would benefit) and Simulations (scientists/genetic engineers for creating chimera creatures?). hmm... coming years is both frightening and exciting... :)
Cassidy Brash
Cassidy Brash Vor 6 Monate
6:23 "Why not simulate quantum physics with actual quantum physics." Me, the universe observing itself: "Oh, neat!"
RogelioAyus Vor year
What I learn so far: -people will make better computers What I don’t understand: -everything else
funmac 2
funmac 2 Vor 14 Tage
Loturzel Restaurant
Loturzel Restaurant Vor 9 Monate
@Mansoor Mughal How about you stop embarassing yourself by ignoring someone saying you misunderstood their comment. I should know better than you what my comment was about, yeah? Fair?
Loturzel Restaurant
Loturzel Restaurant Vor 9 Monate
@Mansoor Mughal No, you missed the point and your comment is not even to be considered an answer.
Loturzel Restaurant
Loturzel Restaurant Vor 9 Monate
@Mansoor Mughal Youre arguing with me over something i never denied in any way, shape or form. Please re-read my comment.
Robinatorrr Vor 9 Monate
John Stout
John Stout Vor 5 Monate
Is it pathetic that I’m only here as a game developer trying to discover when we’ll be able to run perfectly true-to-life physics simulations in VR? 😅
And-Nonymous Vor 5 Monate
@JB No
JB Vor 5 Monate
You think it can run Crysis?
CloakX3 Vor 4 Monate
Watching this in 2021, and I'm so giddy with how far they've come.
Hello Mine
Hello Mine Vor 4 Monate
Hello Mine
Hello Mine Vor 4 Monate
me too
that Libra
that Libra Vor 2 Monate
On youtube I've seen so many informational videos that sometimes i feel like a scientist
Lemar Sullivan
Lemar Sullivan Vor 2 Monate
movie: **creates an item that breaks a law in our reality** Characters trying to explain the item: *"IDK man, it seems like quantum to me"*
Isaac Marks
Isaac Marks Vor 2 Monate
Or nanotech lol
Unorthodox Individual
My IQ is slowly crawling out of the negative numbers.
The Count _
The Count _ Vor 9 Monate
Tyler Perry’s Sistas
√-99 IQ
JP Acuña
JP Acuña Vor year
put it in a squared root so you can say it's imaginary ;)
gepixelt Vor 2 years
@Mr. Rabbit d d d
gepixelt Vor 2 years
Pls dont open this up. Pls dont open this up. Pls dont open this up.
Mikael Särenborg
Mikael Särenborg Vor 7 Monate
How much information could we process if all current computational power were quantum based?
Sandorro Vor 8 Monate
This is so fascinating and scary at the same time.
Dathedr Vor 2 Monate
My professor in Computer architecture is doing research on quantum computers, and he said to us today that Google and IBM promise more than they actually know. He believes that it will take several decades to be able to use them really well and even then not in the sense of a private computer, but rather in large projects.
fiftythree Vor Monat
Hmm, well, while it's definitely true that we're definitely still a few decades away from being able to do something like Schor's algorithm, I feel that's a bit cyncial. They've definitely made some absolutely remarkable progress. The current best is 127 "qubits". Those qubits are too unstable to even as much as all connect with each other with CNOT gates so that's in practice 0 qubits *but* ; it's definitely a lot further than I would have believed possible within a decade, 5 years ago. Suddenly; to me, the magical ~1000 qubits we'd need to have an *actual, useable, stable* 1-bit quantum computer, seems like it's within reach. And to me, that's absolutely astounding.
IHyrdogen-_- Vor 6 Monate
Could you do a video on how time travel is or is not possible via quantum physics
João Victor
João Victor Vor 2 years
Was I the only one surprised by the size of the transitor?
Samrat Adhikari
Por favour??
João Leote • 21 years ago
How did they even built that
Antagonist Vor 2 years
How did they build that
keppy Vor 2 years
@Nedim Kahrimanović AMD's new CPU's as well
Marko Vor 2 years
It's not 7nm it's "7nm", it's the name of the new process, the number was an actual size in the early days but now it doesn't point to any size in a transistor
David Welch
David Welch Vor 2 Monate
How has no one commented on the “power overwhelming” Starcraft Easter egg. Well played
blisterbeetle01 Vor 4 Monate
I loved how you paired the vid with 8 bit game music! Makes it feel right in a kind of backwards way
Symplytra Ac
Symplytra Ac Vor Monat
To be honest, I learned more from this channel, than from school
Ishann Subedi
Ishann Subedi Vor 4 Monate
Love to see that the quality of these videos still stands. Although the animation style feels different. I figured out why. The lack of Birds.
Exotic Vor 11 Monate
"A typical scale for transistor is 14nm" *laughs in 7nm*
MinecraftMilkCraft Vor 25 Tage
@Mujeeb Ahmed cries in 100k light years
PCproffesorx Vor Monat
@Slendy_C Not that intel hasnt fallen behind a bit , because they have, but TSMC and Samsung just started arbitrarily naming things 7 nm , 3 nm , 2nm etc when it has no relation to a standard or a gate size, density or reality. It is now simply a marketing term. Intel has caught onto this and started doing something similar in the past year. It is renaming its 10 nm process intel 7 as its 10nm process has the same transistor density as what tsmc was calling "7nm". I wish the nm naming still meant something, but it really isnt anything more than a marketing term at this point.
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Vor 2 Monate
Volcano _
Volcano _ Vor 3 Monate
Laughs in 69 yoctometer
Tridiots Vor 3 Monate
@Cewla ...no. 10Nanometers 0.01Micrometers 0.00001 millimeters
Abhinav Chaudhary
Abhinav Chaudhary Vor 7 Monate
When he said 14nm, Intel’s crappy CPUs came to my mind.
Mr. Sanju Barman
Mr. Sanju Barman Vor 6 Monate
Just amazing explanation ❤️❤️❤️❤️
Dorian Mearns
Dorian Mearns Vor 6 Monate
I didn’t understand quantum computers before but now after watching this video I still don’t
Raees Gillani
Raees Gillani Vor 7 Monate
This is the best explanation I've seen around.
Fallen Down
Fallen Down Vor 7 Monate
Yeah the animations makes it much more enjoyable too. I even learned how computers work and i am not even got bored!
Kye Vor year
Me: *Observes quantum computers so they stop working*
Fried Egg
Fried Egg Vor 8 Monate
@Quantum man the Photonic Mastermind! its not actually us looking at it, but to observe somethign you have to hit it with photons, or some other material, so to observe a quantum particle you basically have to slap it
kirbydied Vor 8 Monate
@Giovanni César Amorim 9A #DigaNãoAKokiDeus it's simply a fictional expirement to demonstrate a specific situation where superposition is best represented. You're over here analyzing every little detail as if it is a real life experiement. Of course the car won't be dead and alive at the same time but thinking in quantum computing, that could would be alive and dead. That's why quantum computing or the idea of it doesn't work on normal classical computers and circuits. It's very fascinating how weird quantum computing is because a lot of it is based on the weird nature quantum has which leads to a lot of questions that we don't know. I'm not an expert on this so I don't know everything, but there are defending people more qualified that can answer and explain this in more depth if you search it up. But even so, those experts still can't answer some questions about some of the more in depth qualities of quantum. I took a class and some of the questions asked, the teachers did not know because no one has discovered the answers. Sorry about the rant, lol just got really excited about this.
Giovanni César Amorim 9A #DigaNãoAKokiDeus
@kirbydied Schrodinger's cat is, to be honest, a really dumb experiment, the cat won't be both dead and alive, it's either dead or alive, the only thing that in between those things is our doubt, not the actual thing. Also, the cat will be dead because the radioactive material will most likely release particles, killing the cat.
Rest in peace
Rest in peace Vor 8 Monate
@Bro cheet To really observe them you need complicated equipment, that will mess with them anyway, so you can observe them indirectly, by checking output of the device. It's not like brains are magic, though, such device should collapse quantum probabilities on it's own, without human observer, which makes Schrödinger's thought experiment dubious, actually.
Ahaan Shah
Ahaan Shah Vor 8 Monate
lmao this exactly wat i thought wen my physics sir introduced em
Youssef Mohamed
Youssef Mohamed Vor 5 Monate
a tiny correction, the 14 nm is the gate feature length, therefore technically a transistor is quite bigger than 14 nm, but 14 nm is the smallest distance in the gate (between two nodes, I am note sure which two nodes), anyway this is a huge difference, since an atom size feature node, won't mean that the entire transistor is atom sized, but rather the smallest configurable part is atom sized (which mean your resolution is [close to] atom by atom, which is freaking cool ! (and is fundamentally different than the entire transistor being atom sized (basically three atoms (or four) may form a transistor but not a single atom, absolutely not (unless we discover a new king of atoms! (that is a new element, I think we would call Tn on the periodic table)
Chagai Friedlander
Chagai Friedlander Vor 8 Monate
No matter how far they are apart? 4:15 I thought that quantum theory was proven by testing checking two partials at the same time and they didn't match because they were too far
Syauqi Lintang
Syauqi Lintang Vor 7 Monate
*builds a quantum computer and literally simulating quantum physics with quantum physics is like making a robot to make another robot*
Ai Khan C. Yu
Ai Khan C. Yu Vor 7 Monate
like ultron..building robots
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