The Cognitive Tradeoff Hypothesis

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Humans are the only Earthlings with complex language. But at what cost was that ability acquired? In this episode, I visit Tetsuro Matsuzawa to learn about his influential cognitive tradeoff hypothesis.
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Wissenschaft & Technik



5 Dez 2018

mindfieldexperimentsVsaucestanford prisonsociologyfuturismtechnologysciencelearningmind readingChimpanzeeskyotokyoto universityTetsuro MatsuzawalanguagepsychologyMichael Stevensvsauceprimatesbrainneuroscienceevolutionimaginationhistoryevolutionary psychologyjapanresearchcognitioncoginitive tradeoff hypothesismemoryshort term memory



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An Account Vor Stunde
if sharing makes us human, why arent we all communist?
apesoup1 Vor 6 Stunden
I really like the tradeoff hypothesis although I'm pretty sure it's wrong: Memorizing multiple objects(branches of a tree!) and their shapes and using them at fast speed in a specific order is a(very) big advantage if you are trying to climb very fast/efficient through the trees. We don't need that so that's why we lost it... if you have ever tried to speed climb an unknown wall you will know that the mind (fast recognition and memorization of holds) of an ape would definitely be of great advantage for this task.
Radical Trains
Radical Trains Vor 7 Stunden
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10071-008-0206-8 Not the same amount of practice. Also the guy doesn't seem to like humans that much berating Micheal on everything he did.
Richard M
Richard M Vor 12 Stunden
The Pale God
The Pale God Vor 13 Stunden
zis video is fleaking awesome
Mr Memes
Mr Memes Vor 13 Stunden
What about mute people?
M8 Fazelash
M8 Fazelash Vor 14 Stunden
Subsribe to ne plzz
ISACK KIWELE Vor 16 Stunden
Hold up! How do they know numbers and to count then and how they sync
MrAssyran Vor Tag
Pls start free videos again
alva peng
alva peng Vor Tag
what if ayumu is just a chimp-genius who can't really represent the group..
Sam Symes
Sam Symes Vor Tag
You give a speedrunner or esports gamer this test they could do it no problem. Just like the chimp that is thier specialty
Genius by Design
NO way I could NOT do it !!!
Steven Akers
Steven Akers Vor Tag
I call shenanigans. I want to see how many patterns these chimps are exposed to. I'm not doubting they have a better memory than humans but I don't care what animal you are, you wouldn't have a chance for ur eyes to look at each numbers position in .5 seconds.
Cici Nguyen
Cici Nguyen Vor Tag
If we train a young kid from birth I think the kid would be at the same speed
Micah Robertson
Your first error is to assume that humans can't get to the same point as that with just a bit of practice and "unlearning" how to think linguistically. Your theory of a cognitive trade-off makes no sense and fails miserably.
Mr Mewlax
Mr Mewlax Vor Tag
19:36 when you find out ur adopted
Noodles LM
Noodles LM Vor Tag
i fuckin love chimps
Incognegro Vor Tag
look at deh sphidah mohnkeyyyyyy
roswellautopsia Vor 2 Tage
This is so much of a half-assed History channel kind of show, all with questionable hypothesis and blurry conclusions it's a shame someone so science, and logic driven like Michael is doing it. Michael always gave us proved knowledge based on facts and with reliable sources.
Allan Dsouza
Allan Dsouza Vor 2 Tage
Asians may be smart but we're smarter than their animals Asian Chimpanzee: hold my beer
Dozie G
Dozie G Vor 2 Tage
Dear Vsauce, Can you please make a video about the psychology of people wanting biological kids VS adoption? I can't have kids and the prospect of adoption has ruined two relationships even though I'm only in my early 20's. Men seem to be fixated on the idea of wanting to pass on their DNA to a far greater degree than women and I'd like to understand it more. Thanks Xx
Hi Vor 2 Tage
That one time you don’t have premium but can still watch mind field episodes.
Josh L
Josh L Vor 2 Tage
Monks use to take vows of silence to improve focus. We should have a national sign language everyone shut up day. Would be the only holiday no one vocalizes and I would celebrate it. They would also do this with blind folds as well. By limiting one sense it increases the others. We rely to much on what we hear and are always imagining our future. Monkeys just instinctively respond to the now with no concept of the future. Monkeys are the monks of the trees, for the old idol of monkeys that see now evil, hear no evil, do no evil would teach us much if people realize we are blinded by an abundance of information for the smartest and wisest man says nothing. Also I believe we didnt come from monkeys because our DNA is 98% in common, we are also 97.5% a blood worm. That 2% alien DNA is what makes us special and different than any monkey for our eyes and brains are far more advanced. If we did come from monkeys we had to become aquatic at some point in order to lose our hair. Also would account for making us weaker since in water things are lighter. All mammals with little hair spend much time in the water. Monkeys fear water because they sink due to no body fat. So I try to keep a open mind as to how we could have adapted into what we call humanity now. I think the ancient alien idea is just as believable that some alien race landed here and uploaded there DNA into the closest Biped they could find that could handle the upgrade without losing its Alpha status in the animal kingdom, thus ensuring the DNA will survive and explains why monkeys haven't progressed to neanderthals again by random mutation. Other idea is cosmic radiation mutation, but it wouldn't change the bone structure of the eye socket nor would our feet be straight. We would have thumbs on our feet and be way stronger had we evolved in just the trees. Lucy the monkey they traced our DNA back to was only 98% in common with us. So this proves monkeys haven't changed DNA but they have adapted with time yet the base code remains the same if you study RNA and DNA. This is my own theory so take it with a grain of salt but ask the Hippo or Elephant why they arn't hairy. Our brains are more in common with dolphins truth be known. my 2cents. Love peace and prosperity and enjoyed the show! Grateful fan - Josh
ERIC CURE Vor 2 Tage
Kïłł mę, płeåšë. Møm fôüñd łhė põōp śōçk. T-T
shelomoh Vor 2 Tage
SimplyEyolf Vor 2 Tage
Click the numbers! To beat... numbers!
Saatvik Agrawal
Saatvik Agrawal Vor 2 Tage
Hold on a second. I think this research can really be elaborated. We humans use strategies like mnemonics, flowcharts, and other methods to memorize unrelated information. What devices or techniques do chimpanzees use? You see, if we tap into that (assuming such a thing exists) we could harness their mental power. But there's one more thing. We humans developed these techniques due to our less capacity of memory, whereas chimps may not have to had done such a thing. Mabye their natural capacity itself was sufficient.
Aiden O'Connell
Aiden O'Connell Vor 2 Tage
Weather then memerorizing the numbers left to wright micheal looked for them in order of 1 2 3 4 and so on
Sebastian Rodriguez Colina
How do they get the order right?
freeideas Vor 2 Tage
Chimps can, over time, can learn how to remember and identify the placement of digits 0-9 in a split second. Humans can, over time, learn how to remember and identify the placement music notes, pressing up to 10 keys on a piano, also in a split second. These seem -- to me at least -- to be similar skills, except I would say that playing the piano is FAR more difficult. Is this really a case of a mental feat that chimps can do that humans can't?
Upgrayedd Vor 2 Tage
Well, recognizing music is a language skill. And children under the age of 6 have much higher rates of photographic memory. That's the tradeoff hypothesis: that humans and chimps have a similar brain region for photographic memory, except humans mostly use it only for language skills.
Aiden O'Connell
Aiden O'Connell Vor 2 Tage
freeideas the problem with humans is I always saw the eyes of micheal darting across the screen to look for numbers in numerical order weather then left to wright and no human can memorize 10 notes in less then 7/10 of a second
nobedman848 Vor 3 Tage
Subscribe ti Pewdiepie
mad Rascal
mad Rascal Vor 3 Tage
These chimps are paid actors
jimmi hotdog
jimmi hotdog Vor 3 Tage
Far out more please yea.
Froh Natur
Froh Natur Vor 3 Tage
Is it certain, that this test is about memory? When you showed Ayumu's test at the beginning, I only even registered 3 numbers. It's hard to recognize 9 symbols in a split second. Also it would seem to make more sense to me, if chimpanzees preserved the skill to quickly recognize patterns (as in the example with counting predators, and making a quick fight-or-flight decision, which seems to be more about pattern recognition); more so than it does with memory.
statisdt Vor 3 Tage
Kicked out from forest like Adam kicked out from garden .Since his memory was bad just forgot forbiden tree.. lol
Kaspar Vor 3 Tage
How do they know how to count though?
Aaron Schwartz
Aaron Schwartz Vor 3 Tage
vsauce you should know better than to show us linear evolution, show a phylogenetic tree
Hans Anitiser
Hans Anitiser Vor 3 Tage
22:05 the best part
Jessie Sgouros
Jessie Sgouros Vor 3 Tage
I want to see Tetsuro Matsuzawa do it
Marcos Paullo Rocha
conheci o canal só agora kk🤦‍♂️🙀 muito top
Hans Neumann
Hans Neumann Vor 3 Tage
It's so interesting!👍😆 P.S. I love Japan!)
Rob Overholt
Rob Overholt Vor 3 Tage
Where could i download this software so we can try? I think its like typing, with practice, we can cruise too.. Not sold on this video.. Also, Michael knows the camera is watching, DE-vid the company will be watching, the editor will see it and the rest of the world will too, so many things getting him out of "the zone".. anyways.. whatev'....
quantum bracket
quantum bracket Vor 3 Tage
the monolith gave us language
Jk Gaming
Jk Gaming Vor 3 Tage
Hey Michael vsauce here
Danvitinho Vor 3 Tage
I would unronically watch every episode of this if was free
Mp57navy Vor 3 Tage
4:55 "look at monkeys" 5:01 "cameraman shows great ape" Remember kids: Monkey have tails, apes do not.
Stasko Vor 3 Tage
0:32 my team in league of legends
enchanted wolf
enchanted wolf Vor 3 Tage
My mom said I look like a chimp so yea I know what to say when she tell me that
Veronika C
Veronika C Vor 4 Tage
What about some marine mammals languages and cognitive abilities? Somehow I failing to see the differences between “humans” and “animals” more pronounced than differences between two animal kinds.
Team Rocket
Team Rocket Vor 4 Tage
try memorising it as a picture not as 9 numbers in 9 different spots while figuring out the numerical order .
PlasmaFuzer Vor 4 Tage
I think Dr. Matsuzawa's research is quite interesting, and his experimental setup is quite good. I am thoroughly impressed he developed a method of training chips to be able to develop cognitively and to demonstrate that development in a consistent, repeatable way. However what was shown here _at best_ demonstrates consistency with the hypothesis, and nothing more. Michael's failure to reproduce Ayumi's speed at the game demonstrates nothing. Chips are recognized as having impressive cognitive ability (at least within the animal kingdom). Dr. Matsuzawa's research demonstrates that chimp's can be effectively trained to perform tasks (to my knowledge this was already known and demonstrated, and not just for chimps!). Ayumi has been playing this game presumably since it was able to climb into the box along with its mother. This could be many months, to many years (exact age was not specified) of exposure to this training paradigm. During this time Ayumi started off slowly and with a low number of digits and then progressed to the blistering fast pace with a high number of digits. Given a chimp's aforementioned ability to respond to training, this should have been expected. What should also have been expected, is Michael's _inability_ to reproduce this precise end state ability (the speed and accuracy) his first time playing this game. It is not surprising that he was unable to match the speed or accuracy of the highest performing chimp, as he has undergone *no* training whatsoever. Additionally, there are signs he was progressing himself fairly quickly. His times generally were trending down, and his accuracy was trending up (he completed the last puzzle of the set, also in the fastest time). Again, not shocking as his repeated exposure to the tests were serving as training for the subsequent test. I don't dismiss this research or its corresponding hypothesis in its entirety because I understand that it is possible in the associated publications they did comparative trials of one form or another (rates of learning, top end performance, etc.) showing chimps with equivalent training times as their human counterparts were consistently outperforming these humans. However I am being generous here because the claim/hypothesis, though intriguing and with evidence demonstrating consistency, is in my opinion not actually being tested with what was shown here; and hence I am speculating as to what _else_ has been done that was not shown. Again, at best, this research presentation demonstrated that chimps can be trained (already known) and with that training they can out perform humans with no training (impressive but not all that unexpected). However without evidence showing humans can not perform at or above this level, with a corresponding amount of training time, I assert the hypothesis remains thoroughly untested.
Pentti Hilkuri
Pentti Hilkuri Vor 4 Tage
What type of watch is that on Michael's wrist?
Madam Atom
Madam Atom Vor 4 Tage
4:55 "Look at monkeys" _ Dr. Desktop Matsuzawa 2019
Tehvoodoo19 Vor 4 Tage
I wonder if this is why people on the autistic spectrum can sometimes excel at this sort of task, because of the lack of development of, or impaired, language ability.
Ham Bone
Ham Bone Vor 4 Tage
my man look like hes off to gaykumes circumcision
Alex Shyshonkov
Alex Shyshonkov Vor 4 Tage
I got here from ApeSex Legends
Kioku Vor 4 Tage
23:29 I more so *know* what I'm supposed to see in dreams. I can't see the cheetah, but I convince myself I do.
Kioku Vor 4 Tage
5:50 Not to be confused with that one spacecraft.
this guy
this guy Vor 4 Tage
humans can easily do that with a small practice..we can have multiple languages and photographic memories..
David Weihe
David Weihe Vor 4 Tage
Was this test run for people who learned their letters at age 9-10 (about as late as possible)? It is well known that learning to read and write lessens your ability to memorize things (unless you are weird, like Art Benjamin or Marilu Henner), and early reading reduces it even more than normal (age 6) or late initial reading age.
TheGameLecturer Vor 4 Tage
Mind blown.
Justin Haynes
Justin Haynes Vor 4 Tage
@Vsauce, How do the chimpanzees learn the sequence of the numbers?
LittleSpoon Vor 4 Tage
my mind has been blown!!!!!
JC Vor 4 Tage
Ok. That's it. Time to subscribe.
vegard pig
vegard pig Vor 4 Tage
*look* *at* *spider* *monkey*
Zekemeout Vor 4 Tage
Wtf michael?
Yuvraj Mallick
Yuvraj Mallick Vor 4 Tage
19:21 *_Ayumu_* (after seeing this) : _Aa aa uu uu_ ( *Translation* : Yeah Michael that could help beginners)
Flying Squirrel FPV
Has this experiment been performed with autistic savants? If they can perform at the level of the chimps then perhaps a brain scan could be used to compare the physical differences with an average brain.
Tendai Ball
Tendai Ball Vor 4 Tage
Poetic that we got kicked out of the trees and now we run the world
Lane Krischke
Lane Krischke Vor 4 Tage
The only part of this that amazes me is how the chimps can recognize and understand our numeric system. They recognize the symbols and their order. Pretty amazing, I wonder if they could be taught a basic pictogram language.
we defended our existence.. so we developed focused observation they ruled over an area so the defense was not that much... they needed to focus on multiple subjects to achieve their goals such as the threats in the bush.. they were strong , aggressive so they would fight everyone evading their territory. we were weak , so we had to plan to survive
John Talmage
John Talmage Vor 4 Tage
I see based on many comments that it's easier to critique than to create
if there were figures and you have to draw them.. you might be able to draw 1 or 2 with much more details where as a champ would draw all the figures at the exact same location they were before disappearing, they won't be able to draw any details
we notice more about one but can't focus on others they focus on all... can't notice even a single one as better as we do
michael..... we focus on one subject they do it on multiple ones.. how's that expl
arun sheokand
arun sheokand Vor 4 Tage
Great video, great message
debu1997 Vor 4 Tage
Fatboy Vladimir
Fatboy Vladimir Vor 5 Tage
Subtitle the Japanese guy speaking perfectly discernible English.
Chen Yumin
Chen Yumin Vor 5 Tage
No!! God made humans!! We are not monkeys!!! You are wrong!! Evolution is a myth!!
Gamebuster19901 Vor 5 Tage
Meh, speed cubers do more complex tasks than this with only a few more seconds.
Parsa F. Kondori
Parsa F. Kondori Vor 5 Tage
I miss the old Michael
Dill Funk
Dill Funk Vor 5 Tage
I don't believe evolution, such a big lie
Grim Lock
Grim Lock Vor 5 Tage
Rise of the planets of the apes
EinfacherVincent Vor 5 Tage
I wanted to say, an amazing thing to do, go into the dictonary look a a word. Search about it and find out about it. Put it into a folder on the computer Expand your knowledge. Reverse learning.
Awkward Italian Girl
I’m too high for this.
EveryCrazyDay Vor 6 Tage
Honestly what a pioneer in animal research, get tons of research in realistic conditions. Also looks like this guy really cares and understands these cousins of the humans
kliop00023 Vor 6 Tage
holy Rock, Paper, Scissors - DE-vid !!! de-vid.com/video/video-n-N72oVgp2I.html&list=PLZRRxQcaEjA6mH0AMUIERDpbWX5rvMdKf&index=2 Kyoto University Ph.D. candidate Jie Gao shares her research involving Chimpanzees and the schoolyard game “Rock, Paper, Scissors.” Partner rating I Release date 05/12/2018 Running time 3:37 Language English Category Science & Technology
OG Studio
OG Studio Vor 6 Tage
10:56 when you buy cheetos
Baiklzr Vor 6 Tage
5.7 k chimpanzees in the dislikes smh
Alligatorcrocs Vor 6 Tage
Subscribe to call me Carson
John Cochran
John Cochran Vor 6 Tage
If they believe the difference is sharing vs short term decision making, could this be used to diagnose antisocial personality disorder/psychopathy and better understand what it means to be psychopathic?
samantha ohanlon
samantha ohanlon Vor 6 Tage
how do they know the numbers
Tonberry King
Tonberry King Vor 6 Tage
These people really need to study the Stoned Ape Hypothesis
Will a human grown up in the same environment have a malleable enough brain to be able to compete with the chimps?
Recnid Vor 6 Tage
How did they teach the chimps numbers tho? They need to know 2 comes before 3 in order to succeed.
Lunar 76
Lunar 76 Vor 6 Tage
The amount of humanity that was in this video is stunning, and heartwarming.
Lunar 76
Lunar 76 Vor 6 Tage
This is awesome
D Dover
D Dover Vor 6 Tage
They should present other examples of the brain engaging in a cognitive trade off to support the brain does this, where the brain decreases the size of an area to make room for another area. Did our common ancestor 6 million years ago have the same ability to memorize like modern chimps do? or is it something that they developed independent of our linage over millions of years? Since we did not evolve from modern chimps how do you say we lost something they now possess? I just want to see some evidence presented besides it seems logical.
Torab Abdullah
Torab Abdullah Vor 6 Tage
we all know that the people who talk too much use less brain in thinking. so does this make them better competitor at this memory game? cause opposite to those who talk less and think too much thus, have better practice in converting thoughts into words must suck at this game? and how would you prove that this tradeoff actually happened? my biggest question is why don't we see evolution now? where are the in betweeners who started their journey becoming humans and still only half way through?
Far Cry 4
Far Cry 4 Vor 6 Tage
Кто от Стаса?
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